William D. Carrigan and Clive Webb, “‘Muerto por Unos Desconocidos (Killed by people Unknown)’:…
… Mob Violence against African Americans and Mexican Americans, ” in Beyond grayscale: Race, Ethnicity, and Gender when you look https://www.camsloveaholics.com/soulcams-review at the U.S. Southern and Southwest, ed. Stephanie Cole and Allison Parker (College facility, 2004), 35–74; William D. Carrigan and Clive Webb, “A Dangerous Experiment: The Lynching of Rafael Benavides, ” New Mexico Historical Review, 80 (summer time 2005), 265–92. For the Texas example, see Nicholas Villaneuva Jr., “‘Sincerely Yours for Dignified Manhood’: Lynching, Violence, and United states Manhood during the first several years of the Mexican Revolution, 1910–1914, ” Journal regarding the western, 49 (cold temperatures 2010), 41–48. The Chinatown War: Chinese Los Angeles and the Massacre of 1871 (New York, 2012) on mob violence against “racial others” in the West, see, for example, Pfeifer, Rough Justice, 86–88; Pfeifer, Roots of Rough Justice, 46–50; and Scott Zesch. From the lynching of 29 Sicilians, another cultural group regarded as racially different within the postbellum Southern, see Clive Webb, “The Lynching of Sicilian Immigrants when you look at the United states South, 1886–1910, ” United states Nineteenth Century History, 3 (springtime 2002), 45–76. In the lynching of Sicilians in Colorado, see Stephen J. Leonard, Lynching in Colorado, 1859–1919 (Boulder, 2002), 135–42.
Christopher Waldrep, the numerous Faces of Judge Lynch: Extralegal Violence and Punishment in the us (ny, 2002); Christopher Waldrep, ed., Lynching in the us: a brief history in papers (nyc, 2006); Christopher Waldrep, African Us citizens Confront Lynching: techniques of opposition from the Civil War into the Civil Rights age (Lanham, 2008); William D. Carrigan and Christopher Waldrep, eds., Swift to Wrath: Lynching in Global Historical attitude (Charlottesville, 2013). Jonathan Markowitz, Legacies of Lynching: Racial Violence and Memory (Minneapolis, 2004), xxxi. On lynching into the context of Jim Crow tradition, see Grace Elizabeth Hale, Making Whiteness: The customs of Segregation when you look at the Southern, 1890–1940 (nyc, 1998), 199–238. The Properties of Violence: Claims to Ownership in Representations of Lynching (Jackson, 2012) for analyses of literary and visual representations of lynching from the late nineteenth through the mid-twentieth centuries, see Jacqueline Goldsby, A Spectacular Secret: Lynching in American Life and Literature (Chicago, 2006); and Sandy Alexandre. For narratives of southern and vigilantism that is western lynching, see Lisa Arellano, Vigilantes and Lynch Mobs: Narratives of Community and country (Philadelphia, 2012). For lynching into the context associated with the Protestant tradition regarding the postbellum American South, see Donald G. Mathews, “The Southern Rite of Human Sacrifice: Lynching into the United states South, ” Mississippi Quarterly, 62 (Winter–Spring 2008), 27–70. Amy Louise Wood, Lynching and Spectacle: Witnessing Racial Violence in America, 1890–1940 (Chapel Hill, 2009), 14. Fury, dir. Fritz Lang ( mgm, 1936); The Ox-Bow Incident, dir. William Wellman (Twentieth Century Fox, 1943). On lynching when you look at the people tradition of new york’s reduced Piedmont, see Bruce E. Baker, “North Carolina Lynching Ballads, ” in less than Sentence of Death, ed. Brundage, 219–46. On lynching in belated nineteenth- and early twentieth-century black colored movie theater, see Koritha Mitchell, coping with Lynching: African American Lynching has, Efficiency, and Citizenship, 1890–1930 (Urbana, 2012). Sherrilyn A. Ifill, in the Courthouse Lawn: Confronting the Legacy of Lynching when you look at the Twenty-First Century (Boston, 2007). For a residential area research that explored the long legacy of racially inspired lynchings in Marion, Indiana, in 1931, see James H. Madison, Lynching into the Heartland: Race and Memory in the usa (nyc, 2001). For a synopsis of lynching in US culture, see Ashraf H. A. Rushdy, American Lynching ( brand brand brand New Haven, 2012). For the argument that the end-of-lynching discourse will continue to contour and distort discussion of US mob physical violence, see Ashraf H. A. Rushdy, the termination of American Lynching (brand new Brunswick, 2012).
Crystal Feimster, Southern Horrors: Females therefore the Politics of Rape and Lynching (Cambridge, Mass., 2009). On African women that are american relationship to lynching, see Evelyn M. Simien, ed., Gender and Lynching: The Politics of Memory (ny, 2011). For instance studies of lynchings of African US ladies in Georgia, Oklahoma, and sc, see Julie Buckner Armstrong, Mary Turner plus the Memory of Lynching (Athens, Ga., 2011); and Maria DeLongoria, “‘Stranger Fruit’: The Lynching of Ebony ladies, The situations of Rosa Jefferson and Marie Scott” (Ph.D. Diss., University of Missouri–Columbia, 2006). For the treatment that is journalistic of lynching of two African US partners in Walton County, Georgia, in 1946, see Laura Wexler, Fire in a Canebrake: the very last Mass Lynching in the us (ny, 2003). From the lynching of females and kids into the West, see Helen McLure, “‘I Suppose you imagine Strange the Murder of females and Children’: The US customs of Collective Violence, 1675–1930” (Ph.D. Diss., Southern Methodist University, 2009). For a summary of feminine lynching victims, see Kerry Segrave, Lynchings of females in the us: The cases that are recorded 1851–1946 (Jefferson, 2010). Claude A. Clegg III, distressed Ground: an account of Murder, Lynching, and Reckoning within the brand New South (Urbana, 2010); Terrence Finnegan, A Deed So Accursed: Lynching in Mississippi and sc, 1881–1940 (Charlottesville, 2013). On Mississippi’s respected record of racial mob physical physical physical violence, see Julius E. Thompson, Lynchings in Mississippi: a brief history, 1865–1965 (Jefferson, 2007). This Mob Will Surely Take My Life: Lynching in the Carolinas, 1871–1947 (London, 2008); and J. Timothy Cole, The Forest City Lynching of 1900: Populism, Racism, and White Supremacy in Rutherford County, North Carolina (Jefferson, 2003) on lynching in the Carolinas, see Bruce E. Baker.
Kidada E. Williams, They Left marks that are great me personally: African US Testimonies of Racial Violence from Emancipation to World War I ( brand brand brand New York, 2012). On African American responses to mob physical physical violence, see Karlos Hill, “Resisting Lynching: Ebony Grassroots reactions to Lynching into the Mississippi and Arkansas Deltas, 1882–1938” (Ph.D. Diss., University of Illinois, 2009).
Present scholarship, particularly that centered on civil legal rights activism, has started to explore African US reactions to racial terror during the regional degree.
On black colored reactions to terror that is racial fin-de-siecle Florida plus in 1960s and 1970s Alabama and Mississippi, respectively, see Paul Ortiz, Emancipation Betrayed: The Hidden reputation for Ebony Organizing and White Violence in Florida from Reconstruction to your Bloody Election of 1920 (Berkeley, 2006); Hasan Kwame Jeffries, Bloody Lowndes: Civil Rights and Ebony energy in Alabama’s Ebony Belt (nyc, 2010); and Akinyele Omowale Umoja, We Will Shoot Back: Armed Resistance within the Mississippi Freedom Movement (nyc, 2013). Ifill, From The Courthouse Lawn, xix–xx. For the Senate apology, see Congressional Record, 109 Cong., 1 sess., June 13, 2005, p. S6364–88. For news coverage regarding the U.S. Senate apology see, as an example, Wendy Koch, “U.S. Senate Moves to Apologize for Injustice, ” usa Today, June 13, 2005; and Martin C. Evans, “An Apology for Old type of Terror: Senate Expects to Vote Tomorrow on Resolution regarding Its Failure to aid End Practice of Lynching, ” Newsday, June 12, 2005, p. A34. On efforts to memorialize lynchings in Duluth, Minnesota, in 1920 plus in cost, Utah, in 1925, respectively, see Dora Apel, “Memorialization and its own Discontents: America’s First Lynching Memorial, ” Mississippi Quarterly, 61 (Winter–Spring 2008); and Kimberley Mangun and Larry R. Gerlach, “Making Utah History: Press Coverage associated with the Robert Marshall Lynching, June 1925, ” in Lynching beyond Dixie, ed. Pfeifer, 143–47. The chains: In Montgomery, Ala., a Move to Remember Slavery Exactly Where It Happened, ” New York Times, Dec. 10, 2013, pp on an effort by Bryan Stevenson and the Equal Justice Initiative to erect memorials at lynching sites around the South, see Campbell Robertson, “Before the Battles and the protests. 17–18.